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GCSE: Biology

Word Count:  1400

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HYPOTHESIS: The hypothesis I am going to test during the investigation is: when the correct medium of agar is provided for the seedlings, it will grow to a complete plant with new leaves, new stem, and new roots and even if possible flowers.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Totipotency is the potential or inherent capacity of a plant cell or tissue to develop into an entire plant if suitably stimulated. Totipotency implies that all the information necessary for growth and reproduction of the organism is contained in the cell. Although theoretically all plant cells are totipotent the meristematic cells are best able to express it.
Plant Tissue Culture, also called micro propagation, is a practice used to propagate plants under sterile conditions, often to produce clones of a plant. Different techniques in plant tissue culture may offer certain advantages over traditional methods of propagation, including, the production of exact copies of plants that produce particularly good flowers, fruits, or have other desirable traits.
Plant tissue culture relies on the fact that many plant cells have the ability to regenerate a whole plant (totipotency). Single cells, plant cells without cell walls (protoplasts), pieces of leaves, or (less commonly) roots can often be used to generate a new plant on culture media given the required nutrients and plant hormones

EQUIPMENTS: Agar powder, Distilled water, Conical flask, Bunsen burner, Short neck bottles, A pair of scissors, Healthy seedlings, Mounted needle, Cling film.

PROCEDURE: I weighed 1gram of agar powder and added 100cm3 of distilled water in a conical flask.
I lit up the bunsen burner, placed the conical flash on it and boiled and stirred gently until the agar dissolves.
When the conical flash was cool enough to handle around 500c, I poured about 2cm depth into 5 short neck bottles.
I allowed it to cool and solidify.
Using a sharp pair of scissors, I cut the top of 5 healthy seedlings. I cut them as was demonstrated in the diagram. These are called explants. I left the hypocotyls and the roots behind on the sponge.
With a mounted needle, I made small hole in the centre of the agar.
I carefully pushed the cut end of each explant into the agar. I put 1 explant into each bottle. I made sure the cotyledons did not touch the agar.
I then covered each bottle with a cling film.
I labelled the bottled with my initials and placed the bottles under a light bank. I observed and record anything of note over the next a couple of weeks.

DEPENDENT VARIABLE: This variable I measure to see how it is affected by the independent variable. That is the seedlings

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE: This is the variable I keep constant because they could affect the dependent variable. In this case it’s the agar.

CONTROL VARIABLE: These are the variables I kept constant because they could affect the dependent variable. That’s the amount and agar and how much distilled water was added to it.


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